Chris Blattman has a great packing list for graduate students and scholars headed to the field for research purposes. If you're headed to an African country or anywhere else in the developing world, between it and the comments, you'll be set for any situation.
The list is a little depressing given that I'm not headed to "the field" per se this summer. (Given the level of insecurity in the Kivus last fall, applying for funding to go there would have been an exercise in futility.) Instead, I'll be in a cushy European capital or two to do some archival work and interview a few people who know about piracy. Guess I probably don't need to take Cipro or anti-malarials for that.